Database management is a method of managing the information that is used to support a company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and applications, modifying it as necessary, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is a part of a company’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that are organized in accordance with a specific pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most used database type currently. This model is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by offering different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses cost, scalability and other operational issues like the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on the various data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.